49. Case Report: Platypnea-Orthodeoxia secondary to a PFO – Allegheny Health Network

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal & Daniel Ambinder)  join Allegheny Health Network cardiology fellows (Adnan Khalif, Mahathi Indaram, Kushani Gajjar, and Michael Nestasie) for a lovely Pittsburgh hike and discuss a fascinating case of platypnea-orthodeoxia secondary to a PFO. Dr. Farhan Katchi provides the E-CPR and Program director Dr. Craig Alpert provides a message for applicants. Episode notes were developed by Johns Hopkins internal medicine resident Richard Ferraro with mentorship from University of Maryland cardiology fellow Karan Desai

Jump to: Patient summaryCase figures & mediaCase teachingEducational videoReferencesProduction team

Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo

The CardioNerds Cardiology Case Reports series shines light on the hidden curriculum of medical storytelling. We learn together while discussing fascinating cases in this fun, engaging, and educational format. Each episode ends with an “Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review” (E-CPR) for a nuanced teaching from a content expert. We truly believe that hearing about a patient is the singular theme that unifies everyone at every level, from the student to the professor emeritus.

We are teaming up with the ACC FIT Section to use the #CNCR episodes to showcase CV education across the country in the era of virtual recruitment. As part of the recruitment series, each episode features fellows from a given program discussing and teaching about an interesting case as well as sharing what makes their hearts flutter about their fellowship training. The case discussion is followed by both an E-CPR segment and a message from the program director.

CardioNerds Case Reports Page
CardioNerds Episode Page
CardioNerds Academy
Subscribe to our newsletter- The Heartbeat
Support our educational mission by becoming a Patron!
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Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast Presents CardioNerds Case Report Series

Patient Summary

A 64 y/o female with a history of venous and arterial embolism on anticoagulation, known PFO, and obesity presented after a fall. There was no loss consciousness, pre-syncopal symptoms, chest pain, aura, weakness, or palpitations. She had no recent preceding illness. When she arrived in the ED she was hypoxic to 87% on ambulation on room air and required 4L of nasal cannula O2 supplementation. The AGH CardioNerds were consulted!  

On examination, the team noted that upon sitting up the patient would desaturate to the mid 80% but when lying down oxygen saturation would improve to 95%! Her ECG demonstrated a RBBB and no acute ST-T changes. TTE was obtained and showed normal LV and RV function and size, no valvular disease, and a likely PFO on an agitated saline study. Cardiac MRI revealed mild RV hypertrophy and Qp:Qs of 0.8 (right/pulm cardiac output < left/systemic cardiac output, indicating right to left shunting).  RHC showed normal right-sided pressures. A right femoral vein bubble study  was done showing torrential right to left shunting! She underwent PFO closure and her platypnea-orthodexia resolved; she was discharged on room air. 


Case Media


Episode Schematics & Teaching


The CardioNerds 5! – 5 major takeaways from the #CNCR case

  1. Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is when dyspnea (Platypnea) and hypoxia (Orthodeoxia) are present in the upright position, but improve upon lying flat. One cause is ARLIAS, or Acute Right-to-Left Inter-Atrial Shunting, which requires an anatomic component (I.e., ASD or PFO) and a functional component (I.e., PH, PE, RV failure) for Right-to-Left shunting to occur 
  2. A PFO, or patent foramen ovale is a common congenital defect and typically will not lead to hypoxia unless there is right to left shunting. Typically flow is left to right due to an LA to RA pressure gradient and lower compliance of the RV.  
  3. Remember when evaluating for a PFO with agitated saline, the timing of the appearance of bubbles is important!  Early appearance of bubbles (seen in less than 5 beats of the cardiac cycle, think about intra-cardiac shunt. Delayed opacification (> 5 to 6 beats) occurs when the bubbles slowly build in the LV with each successive beat as they circulate to the LV and suggests extra-cardiac shunt.  
  4. Cardiac MRI is helpful in quantifying the shunt fraction (Qp:Qs).  This is the ratio of pulmonary flow (Qp) to systemic flow (Qs), where hemodynamically significant Left-to-Right shunt is > 1.5, especially when we see RA/RV dilation. Qp/Qs < 1.1 indicates net R to L shunt. Other ways to measure a Qp:Qs are echocardiogram (less accurate) and right heart catheterization.  
  5. If there remains clinical concern for PFO with right to left shunting without evidence of a clear functional cause clinically or by catheterization (I.e., no evidence of high PA pressures, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis), consider a right femoral vein bubble study. Upper extremity agitated saline enters the RA via the SVC; however, patients with prominent eustachian valve at the IVC can have blood flow directed towards the interatrial septum. This will be demonstrated on femoral vein bubble study! 

Educational Video

Produced by Dr. Karan Desai

References


CardioNerds Case Reports: Recruitment Edition Series Production Team

48. Case Report: Critical Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis Complicating Pregnancy – Vanderbilt University

CardioNerds (Amit & Dan)  join Vanderbilt University cardiology fellows (Tara Holder, Majd El-Harasis, and Amar Parikh) for a Sunday morning brunch, Nashville style! They discuss an enthralling case of bicuspid aortic valve with critical aortic stenosis complicating pregnancy. Program director Dr. Julie Damp provides the E-CPR and a message for applicants. Episode notes were developed by Johns Hopkins internal medicine resident Tommy Das with mentorship from University of Maryland cardiology fellow Karan Desai

Jump to: Patient summaryCase figures & mediaCase teachingEducational videoReferencesProduction team

CardioNerds (Amit & Dan)  join Vanderbilt University cardiology fellows (Tara Holder, Majd El-Harasis, and Amar Parikh) for a Sunday morning brunch, Nashville style! They discuss an enthralling case of bicuspid aortic valve with critical aortic stenosis complicating pregnancy. Program director Dr. Julie Damp provides the E-CPR and a message for applicants. Episode notes were developed by Johns Hopkins internal medicine resident Tommy Das with mentorship from University of Maryland cardiology fellow Karan Desai.
Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo

The CardioNerds Cardiology Case Reports series shines light on the hidden curriculum of medical storytelling. We learn together while discussing fascinating cases in this fun, engaging, and educational format. Each episode ends with an “Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review” (E-CPR) for a nuanced teaching from a content expert. We truly believe that hearing about a patient is the singular theme that unifies everyone at every level, from the student to the professor emeritus.

We are teaming up with the ACC FIT Section to use the #CNCR episodes to showcase CV education across the country in the era of virtual recruitment. As part of the recruitment series, each episode features fellows from a given program discussing and teaching about an interesting case as well as sharing what makes their hearts flutter about their fellowship training. The case discussion is followed by both an E-CPR segment and a message from the program director.

CardioNerds Case Reports Page
CardioNerds Episode Page
CardioNerds Academy
Subscribe to our newsletter- The Heartbeat
Support our educational mission by becoming a Patron!
Cardiology Programs Twitter Group created by Dr. Nosheen Reza

Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast Presents CardioNerds Case Report Series

Patient Summary

A 22yo transgender F2M man (G1P0000) at 32w5d was found to have a late-peaking systolic ejection murmur on a regularly scheduled OB visit. He reported recent left-sided exertional chest pain and intermittent lightheadedness, as well as a history of a childhood heart murmur. TTE showed a bicuspid aortic valve (LCC-NCC fusion) with severe aortic stenosis (peak velocity 4.83 m/s, mean gradient of 56 mmHg, AVA at 0.5 cm2 and Dimensionless Index at 0.15). Furthermore, there was preserved ejection fraction and no associated aortopathy.   

Following a syncopal episode, the patient was admitted for cardiac optimization prior to delivery. With shared decision making, he ultimately delivered via cesarean section prior to valvular intervention. Post-partum, he underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty with improvement in mean aortic gradient to 27 mmHg and trace aortic insufficiency. He was asymptomatic at 5 months post-procedure with similar gradients across the aortic valve on TTE.   


Case Media


Episode Schematics & Teaching


The CardioNerds 5! – 5 major takeaways from the #CNCR case

  1. Hemodynamics change dramatically during pregnancy. Cardiac output increases by 30-50% during pregnancy due to: ↑ SV, ↑HR, ↓SVR.  
  2. Immediately post-partum, patients with existing valvular lesions are at high risk of heart failure! Hemodynamic changes peripartum are unpredictable.  
    • ↑Preload: relief of IVC compression, auto-transfusion of 300-500mL blood from placenta with each uterine contraction, and intravenous fluids and/or blood products. 
    • ↓Preload: hemorrhage 
    • ↑Afterload: SBP & DBP increase with each uterine contraction 
    • ↓Afterload: systemic vasodilation from epidural and spinal analgesia 
    • ↑CO: by up to 30% in the first stage of labor and up to 80% in the immediate post-partum period. 2/2 ↑SV. 
  3. Most pregnant patients with symptomatic AS can be managed medically, with balloon aortic valvuloplasty reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. TAVR and SAVR may be considered, ideally reserved for the 2nd trimester. Spontaneous vaginal delivery carries a lower risk than c-section due to smaller shifts in blood volume, decreased bleeding, and avoidance of preload-shifting anesthetic agents.  
  4. In a woman of child-bearing age with severe symptomatic AS who is planned for AVR, shared decision making is key in choice of valve! A mechanical valve is more durable than a bioprosthetic valve, but requires anticoagulation that could complicate a future pregnancy. Alternatives include a Ross procedure (replacing the aortic valve using the patient’s own pulmonic valve – “pulmonary autograft” – and a cadaveric pulmonic valve is placed in the pulmonic position – “pulmonary allograft”), Ozaki procedure (recreating a new aortic valve from the patient’s pericardium), performing a bioprosthetic AVR with risk of earlier degeneration, and performing a TAVR with plans for a surgical AVR later. Decision making is complex and warrants a multidisciplinary team accounting for patient preferences.  
  5. The modified World Health Organization (WHO) classification stratifies the risk of pregnancy in women with cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy is contraindicated in women with WHO group IV lesions: 
    • Pulmonary artery hypertension 
    • Severe systemic ventricular dysfunction (EF <30% or NYHA III-IV) 
    • Systemic RV with moderate or severely decreased ventricular function 
    • Previous peripartum cardiomyopathy with residual ventricular impairment 
    • Severe mitral stenosis or severe symptomatic aortic stenosis 
    • Severe aortic dilation (>45mm in Marfan, >50mm a/w bicuspid aortic valve) 
    • Severe (re)coarctation 
    • Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 
    •  Fontan with any complication  

Educational Video

Produced by Dr. Karan Desai

References


CardioNerds Case Reports: Recruitment Edition Series Production Team

47. Case Report: Syphilitic Aortitis with Severe Aortic Regurgitation – UT Southwestern

CardioNerds (Amit & Dan) join UT Southwestern cardiology fellows (Shreya Rao, Sonia Shah, and Nick Hendren) for some delicious Dallas Tacos! They discuss a fascinating case of syphilitic aortitis with severe aortic regurgitation presenting as cardiogenic shock. Program director Dr. Gail Peterson provides the E-CPR and a message for applicants. Episode notes were developed by Johns Hopkins internal medicine resident Evelyn Song with mentorship from University of Maryland cardiology fellow Karan Desai. 

Jump to: Patient summaryCase figures & mediaCase teachingEducational videoReferencesProduction team

CardioNerds Cardiology Podcast: Episode 47: Syphilitic Aortitis with Severe Aortic Regurgitation - UT Southwestern
Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo

The CardioNerds Cardiology Case Reports series shines light on the hidden curriculum of medical storytelling. We learn together while discussing fascinating cases in this fun, engaging, and educational format. Each episode ends with an “Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review” (E-CPR) for a nuanced teaching from a content expert. We truly believe that hearing about a patient is the singular theme that unifies everyone at every level, from the student to the professor emeritus.

We are teaming up with the ACC FIT Section to use the #CNCR episodes to showcase CV education across the country in the era of virtual recruitment. As part of the recruitment series, each episode features fellows from a given program discussing and teaching about an interesting case as well as sharing what makes their hearts flutter about their fellowship training. The case discussion is followed by both an E-CPR segment and a message from the program director.

CardioNerds Case Reports Page
CardioNerds Episode Page
CardioNerds Academy
Subscribe to our newsletter- The Heartbeat
Support our educational mission by becoming a Patron!
Cardiology Programs Twitter Group created by Dr. Nosheen Reza

Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast Presents CardioNerds Case Report Series

Patient Summary

  • A 57 year old male presents with 3 months of progressive dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea and lower extremity edema. However, his symptoms suddenly worsened over the past few days. He has no other known medical history or prior surgeries. Further, he denies tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use and reports a preference for male sexual partners.  
  • On presentation to the hospital, he had a markedly wide pulse pressure, a decrescendo diastolic murmur at the left upper sternal border and a water hammer pulse readily identifiable. TTE confirmed the clinical findings of severe aortic regurgitation with holodiastolic flow reversal in the thoracic, as well as the thoraco-abdominal aorta. Right heart catheterization was performed and showed equalization of the LVEDP and aortic diastolic pressure at 40 mmHg with Cardiac Output of 1.73 L/min. RPR was positive at a high titer (1:512). He was ultimately diagnosed with syphilitic aortitis with severe aortic regurgitation.  
  • He progressed to cardiogenic shock and was managed with nitroprusside, dobutamine, and furosemide infusion as well as IV penicillin for syphilitic aortitis and presumed neurosyphilis. The patient was stabilized and eventually underwent an uncomplicated prosthetic aortic valve replacement and aortic root resection and reconstruction and has done well post-operatively!  
  • Pathology was consistent with syphilitic aortitis: “lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, large foci of necrosis, and neovascularization” 

Case Media


Episode Schematics & Teaching

The CardioNerds 5! – 5 major takeaways from the #CNCR case

  1. When suspecting severe AR, first characterize the AR as either acute or chronic based on clinical evaluation and hemodynamics. From there, AR can further be characterized as primary (valve disorder) or secondary (disorder of the aortic root/aorta). 
  2. Chronic AR exposes the LV to volume overload (leading to increased LVEDV), afterload, and increased wall stress. Chronic severe AR has two phases: 
    • Compensated Phase: Responding to increased wall stress, eccentric hypertrophy occurs. LVEF is maintained during this stage, though LV dilation may begin to occur. Patients are typically asymptomatic.  
    • Decompensated Phase: Eventually, compensatory mechanisms are insufficient and significant LV dilation occurs and LVEF decreases. Patients will develop exertional dyspnea and CHF symptoms.   
  3. The physical exam of patients with chronic AR is full of classic findings and eponyms! Specifically, regarding murmurs of AR, there is the classic diastolic, blowing, decrescendo murmur heard in the LUSB. Typically, the severity of AR correlates with the duration of the murmur more than the intensity. 
  1. Some 2D echo findings of chronic, severe AR include pressure half-time less than 200 ms, holo-diastolic flow reversal in the proximal descending aorta and/or abdominal aorta, and a dilated LV due to remodeling. Other criteria include vena contracta > 0.6 cm, flail valve, regurgitant volume > 60 mL/beat, regurgitant fraction > 50%, and LVESD > 50 mm.  
  2. The goal of management of acute AR is temporary stabilization before proceeding with surgical intervention. This includes vasodilators to reduce afterload and potentially inotropy to support cardiac output. Avoid excessive negative chronotropy as it can prolong diastole and worsen acute AR. If patient is bradycardiac, can increase HR with beta agonists or temporary pacing to decrease time spent in diastole.  
Produced by Dr. Karan Desai, MD

References

CardioNerds Case Reports: Recruitment Edition Series Production Team

46. Introducing CardioNerds Case Reports: Recruitment Edition Series – with Dr. Nosheen Reza

CardioNerds Amit and Dan are joined by Dr. Nosheen Reza, chair of the ACC FIT section, to announce the launch of the CardioNerds Case Reports: Recruitment Edition Series! In this exciting project, the CardioNerds collaborated with the ACC FIT section to invite every fellowship program to co-produce a case-based episode. Fellows from the program present and discuss a fascinating case and an expert provides the E-CPR editorial, followed by a message to applicants from the program director. We’ve asked every program to help us promote diversity in their fellow ambassadors to the CardioNerds show.

We also discuss the value of podcasts and innovations in medical education, Dr. Reza’s perspectives and advice for the upcoming virtual recruitment, getting involved with the ACC as fellows-in-training (#FIT!), promoting diversity and inclusion within cardiology, and Dr. Reza’s advice for thriving during fellowship.

Cardionerds Cardiology Academy

We also introduce the brand new CardioNerds Academy! We will be growing the platform by offering a uniquely tailored and mentored experience to several future CardioNerds Fellows. Our goal is to teach our CardioNerds Fellows the ropes of med-ed podcasting through a comprehensive curriculum with dedicated mentorship. We are honored to have recruited Dr. Justin Berk as program director and Dr. Heather Kagan as associate program director.

Episode # 46: Introducing Cardionerds Case Reports - Recruitment Edition Series - with Dr. Nosheen Reza
Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo

CardioNerds Case Reports Page
CardioNerds Episode Page
CardioNerds Academy
Subscribe to our newsletter- The Heartbeat
Support our educational mission by becoming a Patron!
Cardiology Programs Twitter Group created by Dr. Nosheen Reza

Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast Presents CardioNerds Case Report Series

Key Reference:
Reza N, Krishnan S, Adusumalli S. A Model for the Career Advancement of Women Fellows and Cardiologists. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;76(8):996 LP – 1000.


Nosheen Reza, MD
Nosheen Reza, MD

Dr. Nosheen Reza is a cardiologist and translational researcher at the University of Pennsylvania focusing on advanced heart failure and transplant cardiology and cardiovascular genetics, genomics, and phenomics. She obtained her medical degree from the University of Virginia School of Medicine in 2012 and completed her internal medicine residency training at the Massachusetts General Hospital in 2015. She then completed her Cardiovascular Disease fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania in 2018 and served as 2017-2018 Chief Fellow. At Penn, Dr. Reza pursued additional scholarship in genomic medicine as an NIH T32-funded postdoctoral fellow and in healthcare quality as a Penn Benjamin & Mary Siddons Measey Fellow in Quality Improvement and Patient Safety. She completed her final year of clinical training at Penn in Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology and joined the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania in July 2020. Dr. Reza is passionate about medical education and has won many distinctions in the field throughout her training. She serves as an editorial board member for JACC: Case Reports, JACCCardioOncology, and Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports. Dr. Reza is an active leader in the Heart Failure Society of America, American Heart Association, and American College of Cardiology at the local and national levels and volunteers on multiple leadership councils and steering committees within these organizations.


CardioNerds Case Reports: Recruitment Edition Series Production Team


45. Case Report: COVID Myocarditis – Cleveland Clinic

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal & Daniel Ambinder) discuss a case report of COVID myocarditis and cardiogenic shock with Dr. Travis Howard and Dr. Zach Il’Giovine, cardiology fellows at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Nir Uriel, Professor of Medicine at Columbia University and Director of Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital Network in New York joins to discuss COVID-19 myocarditis and management of cardiogenic shock.

The CardioNerds Cardiology Case Reports series shines light on the hidden curriculum of medical storytelling. We learn together while discussing fascinating cases in this fun, engaging, and educational format. Each episode ends with an “Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review” (E-CPR) for a nuanced teaching from a content expert. We truly believe that hearing about a patient is the singular theme that unifies everyone at every level, from the student to the professor emeritus.

Check out the Cardionerds Cardiology Case Reports Topic Page
Check out the Cardionerds Topics and Episode page for all podcast episodes
Support our educational mission by becoming a Patron!


Case Summary

Healthy and physically fit incarcerated 49M who presents with 2 weeks of fevers, myalgias, and SOB. His past medical history includes GSW to abdomen, psoriasis not currently on medications, prior tobacco and alcohol abuse. Transferred for undifferentiated shock on norepinephrine, and was found to be in sinus tachycardia to 110 bpm, hypotensive despite vasopressor infusions with labs showing a hyperinflammatory state, multi-organ failure, and eventually found to be COVID+. The patient quickly progressed into refractory cardiogenic shock requiring VA-EMCO, as well as Impella placement for LV unloading. The patient underwent endomyocardial biopsy with electron microscopy which was notable for COVID virions in the myocardium and was diagnosed with COVID myocarditis. Interestingly, his chest CT showed normal lung parenchyma and therefore presented as isolated cardiac involvement of COVID-19. The patient improved with tocilizumab, IVIG, and steroids.

Episode Producer: Colin Blumenthal, MD
Medical Education Mentor: Karan Desai, MD

Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo

The CardioNerds 5! – 5 major takeaways from the #CNCR case

  1. Diagnose Cardiogenic Shock at the Bedside!  
    1. Exam: Narrow Pulse Pressure, Labored Breathing, Cheyne-Stokes Respirations, Abdominal Bloating/Nausea, Cool Extremities, Oliguria, Altered Mental Status 
    2. If PAC available, low central (PA) mixed venous saturation (<55-60%) suggestive* of cardiogenic shock 
  2. COVID-19 can cause myocardial injury through several mechanisms 
    1. Ischemic – Supply/Demand Mismatch, Acute Plaque Rupture 
    2. Nonischemic – Stress Cardiomyopathy, Lymphocytic Infiltration, Direct Viral Cardiomyocyte Injury, Bystander Injury from Systemic Inflammation 
  3. Different forms of mechanical support give varying levels of cardiac output and pulmonary support 
  4. Consider VA-ECMO in refractory cardiogenic shock, especially if there is evidence of biventricular failure +/- pulmonary compromise 
  5. VA-ECMO may require “LV unloading” when there is high afterload leading to pulmonary congestion and/or stasis of blood flow in the LV 

  • Cardionerds Myocarditis Infographic


References 


Resources:  

44. Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring with Dr. Michael Blaha

The CardioNerds discuss Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring with Dr. Michael Blaha, Director of Clinical Research for the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Joining the discussion is Dr. Gabriel Shaya, cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and prevention researcher. Carine, Heather and Dan take a deep dive into the crunchy and calcified world of coronary artery disease discussing the evidence and utility of coronary artery calcium scoring as a powerful tool for individualized risk stratification of cardiovascular disease prevention.

44. Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring with Dr. Michael Blaha,
Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo

The Cardionerds CV prevention series  includes in-depth deep dives on so many prevention topics including the ABCs of prevention, approach to obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetes agents, personalized risk and genetic risk assessments, hyperlipidemia, women’s cardiovascular prevention, coronary calcium scoring and so much more!

Take me to the Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Page
Take me to episode topics page

We are truly honored to be producing the Cardionerds CVD Prevention Series in collaboration with the American Society for Preventive Cardiology! The ASPC is an incredible resource for learning, networking, and promoting the ideals of cardiovascular prevention! This series is kicked off by a message from Dr. Amit Khera, President of the American Society for Preventive Cardiology and President of the SouthWest Affiliate of the American Heart Association.

Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series: by the Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast in Collaborate with the The American Society For Preventive Cardiology ASPC
Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series

References and Links

  1. https://www.mesa-nhlbi.org/CAC-Tools.aspx
  2. Blaha MJ, Blankstein R, Nasir K. Coronary Artery Calcium Scores of Zero and Establishing the Concept of Negative Risk Factors. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(1):12-14.
  3. Peng AW, Mirbolouk M, Orimoloye OA, et al. Long-Term All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Asymptomatic Patients With CAC ≥1,000: Results From the CAC Consortium. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2020;13(1 Pt 1):83-93.
  4. Shaya GE, Al-Mallah MH, Hung RK, et al. High Exercise Capacity Attenuates the Risk of Early Mortality After a First Myocardial Infarction: The Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(2):129-139.

Dr. Michael Blaha is an Associate Professor of Cardiology and Epidemiology and presently serves as the Director of Clinical Research for the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Dr. Blaha completed both his MD and MPH and Vanderbilt University. He then completed his Internal Medicine residency in the Osler Medical Housestaff Training Program at Johns Hopkins where he also completed fellowship training. He is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Associate Editor for the Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Clinical Community on acc.org and is a standing member of the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drug Advisory Committee (EMDAC) for the FDA. He is Principal Investigator for the Coronary Artery Calcium Consortium, co-chair of the Cross-Cohort Collaboration, and a Principle Investigator for the American Heart Association (AHA) Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center.

Dr. Gabriel Shaya earned both his Medical Degree and Masters of Public Health at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. He went on to complete his residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Presbyterian – Weill Cornell Medical Center. He has returned to his hometown of Baltimore for Cardiology fellowship with the intent of pursuing a career as an academic cardiologist. His clinical and research interests center on the refinement of cardiovascular risk assessment with the goal of tailoring preventive therapies to avert adverse cardiovascular events before they happen.

43. Introducing CardioNerds Case Reports – with Dr. Julia Grapsa

JACC: Case Reports Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Julia Grapsa joins Cardionerds, Amit and Dan, to introduce a new episode series: CardioNerds Case Reports (#CNCR)! We discuss the value of learning through cases, podcasts and other innovations in education, importance of promoting wellness in medicine, the editorial review process for case reports, and being an editor-in-chief as a woman in medicine.

The CardioNerds Case Reports series will shine light on the hidden curriculum of medical storytelling. We learn together while discussing fascinating cases in this fun, engaging, and educational format. Each episode ends with an “Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review” (E-CPR) for a nuanced teaching from a content expert.

We truly believe that hearing about a patient is the singular theme that unifies everyone at every level, from the student to the professor emeritus.

Take me to the Cardionerds Case Report (CNCR) Series Page
Take me to the Cardionerds Episode Topics Page

43. Introducing CardioNerds Case Reports - with Dr. Julia Grapsa Editor-in-Chief of JACC: Case Reports
Episode graphic created by Dr. Carine Hamo

References

  1. Grapsa J (2019) Voices in Cardiology. JACC Case Reports.
  2. Grapsa J, Fuster V (2019) JACC: Case Reports: New Era of Clinical Cases, Bridging Patients With Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol.
  3. Grapsa J, Fuster V (2020) JACC: Case Reports: Moving to a Multimedia Educational Vehicle. J Am Coll Cardiol.
  4. (2006) Mindset: the new psychology of success. Choice Rev Online.
  5. Balasubramanian S, Saberi S, Yu S, Duvernoy CS, Day SM, Agarwal PP (2020) Women representation among cardiology journal editorial boards. Circulation.

Dr. Julia Grapsa serves as the Editor-in-Chief of JACC: Case Reports. Dr. Grapsa worked for Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi and then she moved to UK as a a consultant cardiologist for Barts Heart Center. In March 2020, Dr. Grapsa started working as consultant cardiologist at Guys and St Thomas NHS Trust. Within the UK’s leading structural valve disease group, Dr. Grapsa is responsible for the valvular heart disease network and echocardiography, a position previously held by Professor John Chambers. Dr. Grapsa has served as chair of the young community for multimodality imaging for the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and as a member of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) education committee, leading the ESC clinical case gallery. She was responsible for ESC social media, since its birth and she has been a member of imaging and online education committees of Heart Failure Association. Prior to her role as JACC: Case Reports editor-in-chief, Dr. Grapsa served as an editorial consultant for JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging. She is a fellow of the ACC, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Society of Cardiology.

42. Lipid Management with Drs. Ann Marie Navar & Nishant Shah

The CardioNerds discuss Lipid Management with Dr. Ann Marie Navar and Dr. Nishant Shah from Duke Medical Center, Division of Cardiology. Amit, Carine and Dan take a deep dive into the greasy world of lipids and cholesterol, covering lipid metabolism, therapeutic targets, approach across the entire spectrum of predicted risk, and key common management scenarios (statin intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated LP(a)), and more.

The Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast presents episode 42: Lipids and Cholesterol with Drs. Ann Marie Navar and Nishant Shah from Duke University Medical Center, Division of Cardiology
Episode 42. Lipids and Cholesterol with Drs. Drs. Ann Marie Navar and Nishant Shah

Take me to the Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Page
Take me to episode topics page

The Cardionerds CV prevention series will include in-depth deep dives on so many topics related to prevention starting with this case discussion. Stay tuned for upcoming episodes on the ABCs of prevention, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetes agents, personalized risk and genetic risk assessments, hyperlipidemia, women’s cardiovascular prevention, coronary calcium scoring and so much more!

Key references:

We are truly honored to be producing the Cardionerds CVD Prevention Series in collaboration with the American Society for Preventive Cardiology! The ASPC is an incredible resource for learning, networking, and promoting the ideals of cardiovascular prevention! This series is kicked off by a message from Dr. Amit Khera, President of the American Society for Preventive Cardiology and President of the SouthWest Affiliate of the American Heart Association.

Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series: by the Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast in Collaborate with the The American Society For Preventive Cardiology ASPC
Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series

Dr. Ann Marie Navar is a cardiologist and epidemiologist at the Duke Clinical Research Institute focusing on cardiovascular disease prevention. She received an MD from Duke University and a PhD in Global Disease Epidemiology and Control from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in 2009 before completing residency in internal medicine and pediatrics and fellowship in cardiology at Duke. Dr. Navar’s research focuses on improving cardiovascular disease prevention through better identification of at-risk populations, targeted interventions to improve quality of care and patient engagement through the electronic health record, and better treatment of hypertension and cholesterol to lower CV risk. She also studies the impact of payer-imposed barriers to novel therapies. Her areas of expertise include risk prediction, patient risk communication, real world data analyses using EHR- and claims-based datasets, and registries. She is an associate editor at JAMA-Cardiology and a board member of the American Society of Preventive Cardiology.

Dr. Nishant Shah obtained his medical degree from Wake Forest University School of Medicine. He completed internal medicine residency training at the Johns Hopkins Osler Program as part of the Barker Firm. He completed his cardiology fellowship training at the Cleveland Clinic. He is currently faculty at Duke Medical Center, Division of Cardiology and is an expert in preventive cardiology as well as a member of the cardiometabolic prevention program. Dr. Shah’s research revolves around the clinical manifestations of  genetic lipid biomarkers and advanced dyslipidemias. He is also interested in ways to make impacts at the primary prevention level. Furthermore, Dr. Shah is involved in many epidemiologic and clinical trial based work with several leaders in the field. He also serves as an associate editor for the American Heart Journal. Dr. Shah is very passionate about clinical education and has won many distinctions in education throughout his training.

41. Women’s Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Leslie Cho

The CardioNerds discuss Women’s Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Leslie Cho, Interventional Cardiologist and Director of the Cleveland Clinic’s Women’s Cardiovascular Center. She is also Section Head of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation in the Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at Cleveland Clinic. Amit, Dan and Carine take a deep dive into women’s cardiovascular prevention and discuss the epidemiology, unique risk factors, different manifestations of CVD and treatment strategies to lower cardiovascular risk in women. Tune in as we discuss cases from the CardioNerds Women’s Clinic to learn more!

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41. Women's Cardiovascular Prevention  with Dr. Leslie Cho

Cardiac Consult Podcast
Tall Rounds Lectures

Key Reference: Cho L, Davis M, Elgendy I, et al (2020) Summary of Updated Recommendations for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. J Am Coll Cardiol 75:2602–2618

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Women

We are truly honored to be producing the Cardionerds CVD Prevention Series in collaboration with the American Society for Preventive Cardiology! The ASPC is an incredible resource for learning, networking, and promoting the ideals of cardiovascular prevention! This series is kicked off by a message from Dr. Amit Khera, President of the American Society for Preventive Cardiology and President of the SouthWest Affiliate of the American Heart Association.

Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series: by the Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast in Collaborate with the The American Society For Preventive Cardiology ASPC
Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series

Dr. Leslie Cho is a professor of Medicine at Cleveland Clinic Lerner School of Medicine Case Western Reserve Medical School and serves as Director of the Cleveland Clinic’s Women’s Cardiovascular Center. She is also Section Head, Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation in the Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Cho received her undergraduate degree in interdisciplinary studies from the University of California, Los Angeles, graduating cum laude. She received her medical degree from the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, and took her residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington Medical Center where she received the John Humphrey Award as Most Outstanding Internal Medicine Resident. Her clinical training continued when she accepted a fellowship in cardiology, followed by a fellowship in interventional cardiology and peripheral disease, both from Cleveland Clinic.

40. The ‘ABC’s of Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Roger Blumenthal

The CardioNerds discuss The ‘ABC’s of Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Roger Blumenthal, Director of the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and co-chairperson of the 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Guideline on prevention of cardiovascular disease. Joining the discussion is Dr. David Feldman, Osler housestaff and first author of a beautiful State-of-the-Art review in the American Journal of Preventive Cardiology discussing a comprehensive ABCs of prevention.

The Cardionerds Cardiology Podcast features episode 40. The 'ABC's of Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Roger Blumenthal
  • A: Assess Risk, Anti-Inflammatory, Aspirin
  • B: Body weight, Blood Pressure
  • C: Cigarette Cessation, Cholesterol
  • D: Dream (sleep), Diet, Digital Health, Diabetes
  • E: Exercise
  • F: Factors of the Environment
  • G: Genetics

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Key Reference: Summarizing 2019 in Cardiovascular Prevention using the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease’s ‘ABC’s Approach

We are truly honored to be producing the Cardionerds CVD Prevention Series in collaboration with the American Society for Preventive Cardiology! The ASPC is an incredible resource for learning, networking, and promoting the ideals of cardiovascular prevention! This series is kicked off by a message from Dr. Amit Khera, President of the American Society for Preventive Cardiology and President of the SouthWest Affiliate of the American Heart Association.

Dr. Roger Blumenthal is a Professor of Medicine and the Director of the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease for which he was the principal developer. He received his medical degree from Cornell Medical College, where he was awarded the Weiss Prize for Excellence in Clinical Medicine. He completed his internal medicine and cardiology fellowship training at The Johns Hopkins Hospital before joining the Johns Hopkins cardiology faculty. Dr. Blumenthal was the most recent recipient of the Landon School Anthony Kupka Distinguished Alumnus Award. He was co-chairperson of the 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Guideline on prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Dr. David Feldman is a Junior Assistant Resident in the Osler Medical Residency Program at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Prior to joining the housestaff, David received his MD and MPH degrees from the University of Miami. David first joined the Ciccarone Center as a pre-doctoral fellow in 2013 under the mentorship of Drs. Roger Blumenthal and Mike Blaha. David is passionate about cardiovascular disease prevention and hopes to pursue a career in academic cardiology, with a particular interest in preventive cardiology.