CardioNerds Academy

CardioNerds Academy

CardioNerds Academy

Welcome to the Cardionerds Academy! 

The CardioNerds Academy was founded to further the democratization of cardiovascular education and to create digital content for asynchronous medical education with the overarching mission of marrying content creation with personal and professional development. The Academy harnesses the entire CardioNerds network and platform to facilitate mentorship, networking, and collaborative efforts at the national and international level.

CardioNerds Fellows are an exceptional group of individuals dedicated to medical education who were selected through a competitive application process. CardioNerds academy fellows are divided into 4 equal “Houses of Cards” that are named after cardiology legends, Vivian Thomas, Helen Taussig, Edith Jones, and Willem Einthoven.

During the fellowship year, CardioNerds Academy Fellows

✔️Create high-quality asynchronous digital medical education content including podcasts, #tweetorials, infographics, blogs, and more! 
✔️Have access to the larger CardioNerds network including Ambassadors from Honor Roll programs, guests, collaborators, and more!

CardioNerds Chief Fellows lead The Academy:

✔️Mentor and oversee content creation & capstone projects of CardioNerds Fellows 
✔️Learn and teach best practices for digital medical education for asynchronous learning   
✔️Have access to the larger CardioNerds network including Ambassadors from Honor Roll programs, guests, collaborators, and more!

Class of 2022

CardioNerds Houses 2022

Dr. Tommy Das – Academy Program Director 

Dr. Tommy Das (@ThomasMDas) is a Cardiovascular Medicine fellow at the Cleveland Clinic. He is a native of Houston, TX, and received his MD from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. He completed his training in Internal Medicine at the Johns Hopkins Hospital Osler Medical Training Program, where he was part of the inaugural medical education pathway. As the grateful recipient of thoughtful and impactful mentorship throughout his career, Tommy is excited to pay it forward by working with an amazing team of educators and clinicians through the CardioNerds Academy Fellowship. His passions range widely from interventional cardiology, medical education in the digital world, folk music, the parks of Northeast Ohio, and pecan pie.

Dr. Gurleen Kaur – Director of the Internship 

Gurleen Kaur (@Gurleen_Kaur96) is an Internal Medicine Resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. She received her MD with Distinction in Research from Albany Medical College, as part of the physician-scientist program with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. During medical school, her research focused on cardiovascular prevention and Cardio-Obstetrics. She was also a member of the ACC Student Leadership Groupand Perspectives Editorial Committee. She is passionate about all things Cardiology, clinical reasoning, and medical education. In her free time, Gurleen enjoys traveling, trying out new restaurants, and baking.

Dr. Saman Nematollahi – Director of Research

Dr. Saman Nematollahi is an Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases. He graduated from the University of Arizona College of Medicine – Tucson in 2015. He completed internal medicine residency training at Columbia University Medical Center in 2018, then completed ID fellowship at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, with an emphasis on Transplant ID in 2021. He has also completed his coursework for his Master of Education in the Health Professions through Johns Hopkins University School of Education. Saman is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha and the Gold Humanism Honor Society. He is the Vice-Chair of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) Fellows Subcommittee and is a liaison to the Executive Committee of the IDSA Medical Education Community of Practice. He is also a member of the Infectious Disease Fellows Network and serves as the Director of Research of The Clinical Problem Solvers podcast. He enjoys wrestling with his son and watching shows with his partner.

Dr. Rick Ferraro – Director of Journal Club 

Dr. Rick Ferraro is midwest raised, spent two years as a Teach For America Corps member teaching science in Milwaukee before heading to medical school at Weill Cornell Medicine in NYC. Current senior resident at the Osler Medical Residency program and will begin cardiology fellowship at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 2021. Completed intern year under the incredible leadership of Dr. Amit Goyal. Interested in cardiovascular prevention and imaging

Dr. Devesh Rai – #CardsJC Deputy Director

Devesh @DeveshRaiMD is a Cardiovascular Disease Fellow at Rochester General Hospital. He was awarded as the best PGY3 of the year for his clinical acumen and peer teaching abilities and was chief resident. During residency, he has received travel and research grants and involved in multiple prospective studies. He is interested in pursuing a career in imaging, prevention, and #MedEd. He is involved in gender-based disparities and outcomes. Over the weekends, he is hiking with his wife @RitambharaMD and exploring western NY.

Chief

Dr. Teodora Donisan

Teodora Donisan @TDonisan is an internal medicine resident at Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, Michigan. She completed medical school at the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, in her home country of Romania. After medical school, she worked as cardiology resident in Bucharest for 2 years, followed by a research rotation in interventional cardio-oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Teo is passionate about medical education and loves the rush of the cardiac intensive care unit. She is interested in pursuing an academic career in interventional cardiology. She dreams of photographing wildlife in all National Parks in the United States.

Fellows

Dr. Karla Asturias

Karla Asturias is an Internal Medicine resident at Pennsylvania Hospital. She received her medical degree from Universidad Francisco Marroquin, in Guatemala City, where she founded a medical education podcast for Spanish-speaking students. After residency, she hopes to pursue a career in Cardiology and Electrophysiology. She is passionate about logical thinking, EKGs and medical education. In her free time, she enjoys playing tennis and trying new restaurants and coffee shops.

Dr. Justin Brilliant

Justin was born in the suburbs of Baltimore and grew up in western Maryland. He attended Johns Hopkins University where he earned a BS in Neuroscience and a minor in music. He attended the University of Maryland School of Medicine and continued his hobbies of piano playing and singing at coffee-house events and local bars. Justin is now a second year internal medicine resident at the Osler Medical Residency at Johns Hopkins. Justin is a Baltimore sports aficionado and has season tickets for the star-studded, electrifying Baltimore Ravens. While in Baltimore, he has enjoyed running along the waterfront from Fell’s Point to the Inner Harbor, eating ice cream in Patterson Park, and playing trivia in local bars.

Dr. Sukriti Banthiya 

Sukriti was born in India, and graduated from the Medical School in Bangalore, before coming to the US for pursuing her Internal Medical Residency at Ascension Providence in Michigan. A visual learner and self-taught artist, she loves to learn using art as an aid to simplify complex medical concepts. She is the author of “Learning Medicine with Art”, a compilation of medical illustrations which aims to make learning fun for the medical student! Outside of medicine, she enjoys yoga, art, and exploring novel Asian cuisine.

Dr. Saahil Jumkhawala

Saahil is a second-year Internal Medicine resident at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School and University Hospital. After studying Economics at New York University, he matriculated to the Tufts University School of Medicine for his MD. There, he completed a joint MBA degree at the Brandeis Heller School for Social Policy and Management. Saahil’s interests lie at the intersection of quality improvement, health services research, and clinical cardiology. Outside of medicine, Saahil is an avid traveler and podcast listener.

Interns

Hirsh Elhence

Hirsh is an MS3 at USC in Los Angeles. He hopes to pursue a residency in internal medicine and he is intrigued by a career in cardiology. Specifically, he is interested in heart failure and interventional cardiology. To be honest though, he hasn’t had enough exposure to really know. Additionally, he is interested in teaching because it’s a great way to learn.

Akiva Rosenzveig

Akiva Rosenzveig is third-year medical student at New York Medical College and majored in biology at Yeshiva University in New York City. He is a member of the ACC medical student group. His clinical and research interests are in Interventional and structural cardiology. He is passionate about all things cardiology. When Akiva is not studying for his shelf exams or convincing his colleagues to pursue a career in cardiology, he enjoys spending time with his wife and two super cute kids, in his unbiased opinion.

House Faculty 

Dr. Tommy Das

Chief

Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem

Ahmed Ghoneem is an internal medicine resident at Lahey Hospital and Medical Center in Burlington, Massachusetts. He received his medical degree from Alexandria University in Egypt, where he also completed a 4-year cardiology residency and one year as a junior faculty member. In 2018, he joined the Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston as a clinical research fellow up until he started his residency last July. His interests include cardiac PET imaging, mechanical circulatory support and interventional cardiology, with a special passion for structural interventions. Outside the hospital, he is quite the movie buff ; a huge fan of Quentin Tarantino and “everything Batman”.

Fellows

Dr. Rawan Amir

Rawan Amir received her medical degree from the University of Dammam in Saudi Arabia and is currently completing her final year of internal medicine residency at the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, Maryland. She will be starting her cardiology fellowship at Johns Hopkins Hospital in July of 2022. She specifically has an interest in adult congenital heart disease and hopes to one day be the first Saudi female to specialize in the field and to start a robust ACHD program back in Saudi. Rawan, under the guidance of her physician parents, has been involved in research from a very young age and aims to further advance her career as a physician scientist. When she’s not elbows deep in work, she enjoys scuba diving, playing tennis and training her pet parrots (yes, she’s a bird person).

Dr. Martin Campbell

Martin Luther Campbell is an internal medicine resident at Emory University School of Medicine. He earned his MD degree from Morehouse School of Medicine and studied biology at Morehouse College. He is married with four children and is a native of Minneapolis, MN. Prior to medical school, Martin worked as an analytical chemistry technician and clinical laboratory scientist. He currently serves as co-president of the Emory internal medicine Churchwell Diversity and Inclusion Collective (CDIC), and diversity chair of the GME House Staff Organization (HSO). He is a recently selected member of the ACC African-American/Black IM Cardiology program, and a co-recipient of the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Community Service Award on behalf of Emory CDIC. He remains committed to the work of serving marginalized and historically disenfranchised communities while sharing his passion for cardiology with everyone he meets. His hobbies include poetry, comedy, and watching Minnesota Vikings football.

Dr. Bhavya Varma

Bhavya (@BhavyaVarma12) is a 2nd year internal medicine resident in the Osler Residency at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. She was raised in Charleston, SC and went to Duke University for her undergraduate studies (#CameronCrazie). She then attended the University of Pittsburgh for medical school where she was especially interested in women’s health. As she navigates internal medicine, she has found a special interest in women’s cardiovascular disease and cardio-obstetrics as well as cardiac critical care. She was lucky enough to have been raised by her incredible Barker seniors (#BarkerBabes), and hopes to become doctors and educators like them someday. She is also a blogger for the AHA Early Career Program. In her free time, she loves spending time with her co-residents and trying the various restaurants and ice cream spots of Charm City!

Dr. Kate Wilcox

Kate is an Internal Medicine and Pediatrics resident at Medical College of Wisconsin. She was born in Colorado and lived in Oregon and Utah before moving back to attend medical school at Rocky Vista University in Colorado. She loves the rollerblading and Great Lakes surfing scene in Milwaukee and is passionate about medical education, health equity, and excellent transitional care for complex pediatric patients as they grow into thriving adults! She is enthusiastic about all aspects of cardiology but is especially interested in adult congenital heart disease. She lives with her partner, two adopted kittens, and far too many house plants in a sunny apartment in Bayview.

Interns

Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian

Maryam Barkhordarian is a research observer at UT health San Antonio. Upon obtaining her medical degree from Shiraz University in Iran, she moved to the United States to continue her career in internal medicine and cardiology. She is passionate about medical education and is currently working with the Wikidoc team at Harvard University to prepare a medical source for students and residents. She is also interested in cardioimaging and interventional cardiology. In her free time, she enjoys hiking, watching movies, and spending time with family.

Shivani Reddy

Shivani Reddy (@ShivaniReddy_1) is a 2nd year medical student at Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine (WMed). Prior to medical school, Shivani attended UC Davis and obtained a Bachelor of Science in Cell Biology. As a medical student, Shivani has been actively involved in health literacy initiatives as well as leadership in different organizations at her school, such as Cardiology Interest Group and Internal Medicine Interest Group. She also serves as one of the ACC Medical Student Leadership Group Ambassadors. Given her lifelong passion for cardiology, Shivani foresees pursuing a residency in internal medicine followed by a fellowship in cardiology. She envisions her career to be an amalgamation of her interests in cardiology, medical education, and health technology. In her free time, Shivani enjoys tutoring high school students, creating fusion food recipes, and learning iOS app development!

House Faculty Leader

Dr. Rick Ferraro

Chief

Dr. Patrick Zakka

Patrick Zakka is a cardiology fellow at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He completed his internal medicine residency and chief resident year at Emory. He completed his medical school at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, and completed two additional years of research there in cardiac electrophysiology. He is passionate about research and medical education especially in the expanding world of social media. In his free time, Patrick enjoys playing and watching basketball, and eating all kinds of foods.

Fellows

Dr. Alaa Diab

Alaa is an IM resident at GBMC, while pursuing her MPH degree from JHSPH with Public Health Advocacy and Health Finance and Management Certificates. She graduated from University of London in 2020, where she volunteered with the United Nations, joined the Corrie Health team at JHU for cardiovascular disease prevention research, and participated in the Peer Tutor Program for teaching OSCEs skills. In her spare time, Alaa enjoys cooking as part of culinary medicine, for which she participated in the European Public Health week with “Healthy Cooking” videos project, as well as advocates for healthy living, medicine, and positive psychology on her social media platforms. If not at the hospital, you can find Alaa riding a bike around Charm City’s waterfront, learning piano, or trying a new pistachio dessert recipe!

Dr. Breanna Hansen

Breanna (Bree) Hansen (@breannahansen_) is a 2nd year internal medicine resident at Cedars Sinai in Los Angeles, California. She completed medical school in her hometown at the University of California Riverside SOM. She is interested in pursuing an academic career in cardiology with a focus on medical education and women’s cardiovascular health. In her free time, Bree loves traveling with her husband, snow-skiing, and long walks with her Australian Shepard.

Dr. Aravind Kalluri

Aravind Kalluri is an internal Medicine resident at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. He completed medical school at Northwestern University in Chicago. He ultimately plans to pursue a career that blends clinical cardiac electrophysiology, medical education, and device development. In his free time, he enjoys board games, watching movies, and playing basketball and tennis.

Dr. Zaid Safiullah

Zaid was brought up in south-central Pennsylvania. He graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a B.S. in Molecular Biology. He then spent two years as a research fellow at the NIH before returning to Pittsburgh for medical school. He is currently a second year resident in the Osler Medical Residency at Johns Hopkins and is a member of the Physician Scientist Pathway. When outside the hospital, Zaid enjoys working out to Future and Drake, and exploring new restaurants in Baltimore with his wife Zeenie.

Interns

Pace Wetstein

Pace (“Pacey) Wetstein, known by some as Cardiologist@Heart, is a passionate premed student, and recently graduated from Stevenson University in Baltimore, MD. He is fortunate to have taken part in cardiology research in Johns Hopkins, intern in University of Maryland PICU and Shock Trauma, and receive mentoring from physicians in several fields. While diligently studying for the MCAT, he maintains a strong passion for cardiology and medicine at-large. Pacey is also a lifeguarding and basic life support instructor for the American Heart Association, and an amateur radio operator as a volunteer for RACES (Radio Amateur Communications Emergency Service). As a hobby, Pacey enjoys taking nature walks and singing. Joining the CardioNerds team is going to be a tremendously amazing experience!

Christian Faaborg-Andersen

Christian (@c_andersen_1) is a fourth-year medical student at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. He attended college at Georgetown University, followed by two years at the National Institutes of Health where he worked as a research fellow. As a medical student, Christian developed an interest in Global Health and Preventative Cardiology, and has been actively involved in both fields, clinically and through his research. He is a member of the ACC Medical Student Leadership Group and serves on the Editorial Committee for the Medical Student Perspectives Page. Next year, Christian will be pursuing residency in Internal Medicine. He dreams of one day crafting a career that combines clinical Cardiology, global health, and medical education. In his free time, Christian enjoys relaxing with friends, playing volleyball, and fly fishing on the Chattahoochee River. He also loves traveling and hopes to incorporate many international experiences into his practice as a physician in the future.

House Faculty

Dr. Colin Blumenthal
Dr. Dinu Balanescu

Chief

Dr. Jessie Holtzman

Dr. Jessie Holtzman (@jholtzman3) is an internal medicine resident at the University of California, San Francisco. She received her medical degree from Harvard Medical School, before which she had the time of her life as a Fulbright Scholar doing research in Buenos Aires, Argentina. She ultimately hopes to pursue a career that combines clinical cardiology with an emphasis on women’s cardiovascular health, medical education, and policy making.

Fellows

Dr. Anjali Agarwalla

Anjali Agarwalla (@anjaliagarwalla) is an internal medicine resident at the University of Pennsylvania. She received her medical degree from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. She’s currently interested in advanced heart failure and in restructuring medical education to be trainee-centered instead of resiliency-focused. When she’s not in the hospital, Anjali spends most of her time inexpertly critiquing movies, watching loved ones play video games, learning obscure board games, watering her (too many) plants, and making niche Spotify playlists.

Dr. Kahtan Fadah

Dr. Kahtan Fadah is an internal medicine resident at Texas Tech University in El Paso. Born and raised in rural Yemen, he has found a home in the border community. From undergraduate to residency, he has demonstrated a passion for the creation of educational content. In undergraduate school, he established and lead undergraduate teaching assistance programs for departments including chemistry, microbiology, and organic chemistry. In medical school, he was the founder of a unique peer tutoring system, while in residency he became well known for starting the peer-resident “Big sibling/little sibling” research mentoring program. His research focuses on environmental control, racial and demographic disparities, heart failure, and cardiovascular disease and management. Dr. Fadah is passionate about advocacy and policy reform, health equity, and transformative approaches to research and medical education. As well as being a devoted member of the healthcare profession, he is a soccer aficionado and will play with local leagues on his downtime. He will challenge you to flintknapping where there is no napping.

Dr. Gurleen Kaur

Gurleen Kaur (@Gurleen_Kaur96) is an Internal Medicine Resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. She received her MD with Distinction in Research from Albany Medical College, as part of the physician-scientist program with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. During medical school, her research focused on cardiovascular prevention and Cardio-Obstetrics. She was also a member of the ACC Medical Student Leadership Group and Perspectives Editorial Committee. She is passionate about all things Cardiology, clinical reasoning, and medical education. In her free time, Gurleen enjoys traveling, trying out new restaurants, and baking.

Dr. Ty Sweeney

Ty Sweeney (@TySweeney6) is a second year internal medicine resident at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. He completed his undergraduate and medical degrees at Boston University in his native Massachusetts before moving to Baltimore to begin residency. There, he is part of the Medical Education Pathway where he hones his skills as an educator. Ty discovered his passion for education in medical school where he helped start a nutrition medicine curriculum to combine his love for food with his love for cardiovascular disease prevention. When not rambling about cholesterol, Ty enjoys rock climbing, cooking, and trying to win the affection of his cat, Luna.

Intern

Adriana Mares

Adriana C. Mares (@AdrianaCMares) is a student at the University of Texas at El Paso/Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso. Inspired by her current research and encouraged by mentors, she is motivated to pursue a career in academic cardiology and interventional cardiology.

House Faculty

Dr. Evelyn Song
Dr. Devesh Rai

Class of 2021

Dr. Tommy Das – Academy Program Director 
Dr. Gurleen Kaur – Director of the Internship 
Dr. Karan Desai – Editor in Chief 
Dr. Saman Nematollahi – Director of Research 
Dr. Rick Ferraro – Director of Journal Club 

House Chief
Dr. Tommy Das 

Fellows

Dr. Hussain Khalid
Dr. Jessie Holtzman
Dr. Devesh Rai

Interns

Dr. Leticia Pimenta
Hirsh Elhence

Chiefs

Dr. Eunice Dugan
Dr. Rick Ferraro 

Fellows

Dr. Madiha Khan
Dr. Teodora Donisan
Dr. Devesh Rai
Dr. Patrick Zakka
Dr. Luis Calderon

Interns

Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian
Shivani Reddy

Chief

Dr. Colin Blumenthal

Fellows

Dr. Juliette Power
Dr. Isadora Mathias
Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem

Interns

Pace Wetstein
Christian Faaborg-Andersen

Chief
Dr. Evelyn Song 

Fellows
Dr. Najah Khan
Dr. Omid Amidi
Dr. Dinu Balanescu

Interns

Dr. Gurleen Kaur
Adriana Mares

Cardionerds Academy 2020-2021

Learn about our CardioNerd HeroEs

The Vivien Thomas Fund at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Vivien Theodore Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American laboratory technician and instructor of surgery at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. He was born as the grandson of a slave in Lousiana, working as a carpenter and subsequently as a laboratory technician after the great depression and the loss of his savings derailed his plans to become a doctor. In his role as a laboratory technician, he overcame challenging personal circumstances to become an innovator in paediatric cardiac surgery, despite having no formal college education. He played an important role in assisting Alfred Blalock and Helen Taussig in the development of the ‘Blalock-Taussig’ shunt, a procedure used to improve the survival of children with cyanotic congenital heart defects. He also contributed to major breakthroughs in research covering a spectrum of disorders such as traumatic shock, coarctation of the aorta and transposition of the great arteries. He acted as a teacher and mentor to a generation of surgical residents and technicians who went on to become leaders in their field across the USA. A television film based on his life was premiered by HBO in 2004 titled ‘Something the Lord made’.

(Soylu et al., 2017)

Soylu E, Athanasiou T, Jarral OA. Vivien Theodore Thomas (1910–1985): An African-American laboratory technician who went on to become an innovator in cardiac surgery. J Med Biogr. 2017;25(2):106-113. doi:10.1177/0967772015601566

Kennedy DM. In search of Vivien Thomas. Texas Hear Inst J. 2005;32(4):477-478.

Ng CT in. J. Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator. J Invest Surg. 2014;27(3):131-138. doi:10.3109/08941939.2013.865817

Helen B. Taussig - Wikipedia

Taussig, a pioneering pediatric cardiologist, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She earned an A.B. from the University of California in 1921 and an M.D. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1927. Following graduation, Taussig served as an Archibald Fellow in Medicine at Johns Hopkins and worked at the hospital’s heart station until 1928.

She then interned in pediatrics at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. In 1930, Edwards Park appointed Taussig physician-in-charge of the Harriet Lane Cardiac Clinic.  In 1959, she became the second woman at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine to be appointed full professor.  In 1963, Taussig stepped down as physician-in-charge and became professor emeritus of pediatrics.

Taussig was a leader in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. In 1944, along with surgeon Alfred Blalock and surgical technician Vivien Thomas, she developed the surgical procedure commonly known as the “blue baby” operation to correct a debilitating and life-threatening congenital heart defect that exhibited blue skin pigmentation, or cyanosis, in children. In addition to saving thousands of lives, the procedure was a major contribution toward the establishment of open heart surgery. Taussig also helped to avert a thalidomide birth defect crisis in the United States, testifying to the Food and Drug Administration on the terrible effects the drug had caused in Europe.

In 1954, she received the prestigious Lasker Award for her work on the “blue baby” operation. In 1964, Taussig received the Medal of Freedom from President Lyndon Johnson. She was elected president of the American Heart Association in 1965.

Dunn PM. Dr Helen Taussig (1898-1986): Pioneering American paediatric cardiologist. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(1):2006-2009. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.095398

Taegtmeyer H. Helen taussig. Texas Hear Inst J. 2010;37(2):254.

Robays J Van. Helen B . Taussig (1898-1986 ). Facts, Views Vis OBGYN. 2016;8(3):183-187.

Edith Irby Jones - Wikipedia

Edith Irby entered the University of Arkansas School of Medicine in September 1948, becoming the first African American to desegregate a Southern medical school. Seventy years later, she has become a hidden figure in the history of medical education.The author provides a brief biography of Irby (later Jones) and analyzes the factors that led the University of Arkansas to admit Irby, most notably her scholastic excellence and an innovative legal strategy launched by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to eliminate racial inequalities in graduate and professional education. Irby’s admission prompted intensified efforts by medical civil rights activists to desegregate all U.S. medical schools.The author concludes that the 70th anniversary of Irby’s groundbreaking accomplishment provides an opportunity to acknowledge her significant contribution to the history of medical education and to recognize the continued need to erase persistent racial inequalities in the physician workforce.

Gamble, VN (2013)

Gamble VN. No struggle, no fight, no court battle: The 1948 desegregation of the university of arkansas school of medicine. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2013;68(3):377-415. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrs025

Gamble VN. Edith Irby: A Hidden Figure in the History of Medical Education. Acad Med. 2019;94(11):1670-1674. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000002772

Bernadine Healy, M.D. | National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Dr. Bernadine Healy was a cardiologist with a diverse career spanning the government, nonprofit organizations, and academia. Dr. Healy was the first female Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), serving from April 1991 to June 1993. She also served as Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy appointed by Ronald Reagan. She was President of both the American Heart Association and the American Red Cross. Dr. Healy was a Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Chair of the Research Institute at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, and Professor of Medicine at Ohio State University.  – https://www.womenofhopkins.com/healy

Shalala DE. Retrospective. Bernadine Healy (1944-2011). Science. 2011;333(6051):1836. doi:10.1126/science.1213786

Healy B. Bernadine Healy, M.D. August 4, 1944 – August 6, 2011. 2012;(1):2012.