The following question refers to Section 4.7 and Table 18 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by CardioNerds Academy Intern Student Dr. Shivani Reddy, answered first by Fellow at Johns Hopkins Dr. Rick Ferraro, and then by expert faculty Dr. Roger Blumenthal.
Dr. Roger Blumenthal is professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins where he is Director of the Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. He was instrumental in developing the 2018 ACC/AHA CV Prevention Guidelines. Dr. Blumenthal has also been an incredible mentor to CardioNerds from our earliest days.
The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.
Mr. A. C. is a 78-year-old gentleman with a long-standing history of HTN receiving antihypertensive medications & dietary management for blood pressure control. What is the target diastolic blood pressure recommendation for all treated patients such as Mr. A.C.?
< 80 mmHg
< 90 mmHg
< 70 mmHg
< 95 mmHg
< 100 mmHg
The correct answer is A: DBP < 80 mmHg
Blood pressure treatment targets: when drug treatment is used, the aim is to control BP to target within 3 months. Blood pressure treatment targets in the 2021 ESC Prevention guidelines are more aggressive than previously recommended, as evidence now suggests the previously recommended targets were too conservative, especially for older patients.
The magnitude of BP lowering is the most important driver of benefit.
· It is recommended that the first objective of treatment is to lower BP to <140/90 mmHg in all patients, and that subsequent BP targets are tailored to age and specific comorbidities (Class 1).
· In treated patients aged 18-69 years, it is recommended that SBP should ultimately be lowered to a target range of 120 – 130 mmHg in most patients (Class 1).
· In treated patients aged ≥70 years, it is recommended that SBP should generally be targeted to <140 and down to 130 mmHg if tolerated (Class 1).
· In all treated patients, DBP is recommended to be lowered to <80 mmHg (Class I).
This change in the BP target range for older people compared with the 2016 ESC prevention guidelines is supported by evidence that these treatment targets are safely achieved in many older patients and are associated with significant reductions in the risk of major stroke, HF, and CV death. It also takes into account that the even lower SBP in the intensively treated group in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) (mean 124 mmHg) probably reflects a conventional office SBP range of 130-139 mmHg. It is recognized, however, that the evidence supporting more strict targets is less strong for very old people (>80 years) and those who are frail. Also, in these older and especially frail patients, it may be difficult to achieve the recommended target BP range due to poor tolerability or adverse effects, and high-quality measurement and monitoring for tolerability and adverse effects is especially important in these groups.
The first step in HTN management in all groups is a reduction to SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP < 80 mmHg, with further targets depending on age and comorbidities as specified by Table 18 of the 2021 ESC Prevention Guidelines.
1. 126.96.36.199 page 3285
2. Table 18 page 3287