348. Case Report: An Interesting Intersection of Cardiology and Hematology/Oncology – Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital

CardioNerds (Daniel Ambinder) joins Dr. Priyanka Ghosh and Dr. Ahmad Lone from the Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital for a day in the Finger Lakes region of New York. They discuss the following case. A 35-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of headache, fatigue, and chest wall pain was found to have elevated troponin levels, elevated inflammatory markers, EKG with inferior and anterolateral ST depressions, and no obstructive coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. His peripheral eosinophilia, cardiac MRI results, and bone marrow biopsy revealed eosinophilic myocarditis from acute leukemia with eosinophilia. This episode discusses this rare type of myocardial inflammation, its potential causes, and the diagnostic workup with the mention of how this patient was ultimately treated for his acute leukemia and myocarditis. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Saurabh Sharma. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, student doctor Pace Wetstein.

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Case Media – Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital

Pearls – Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital

  1. Myocarditis, especially eosinophilic myocarditis, requires a high level of clinical suspicion.
  2. Eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered in a patient presenting with chest pain, normal coronary arteries, and pronounced eosinophilia levels.
  3. Causes of eosinophilic myocarditis can vary, and diagnosis requires a thorough, detailed history, which cannot be determined many times.
  4. Treatment of eosinophilic myocarditis focuses on the underlying etiology, acute management, and therapy for concomitant heart failure or cardiomyopathy.
  5. Consider the whole-patient and cardiac manifestations of non-cardiac illnesses.

Show Notes – Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital

What is eosinophilic myocarditis?

Eosinophilic myocarditis is a type of myocardial inflammation involving eosinophilic cell infiltration and an entity that is likely under-recognized. It requires a high level of suspicion as, many times, patients may not initially present with peripheral eosinophilia, which may develop over the course of their disease process. The presentation can vary from mild cardiac injury to fulminant cardiogenic shock depending on the degree of infiltration and concurrent other organ involvement. The presentation can include heart failure symptoms as well as electrical conduction abnormalities.

How is eosinophilic myocarditis diagnosed?

Eosinophilic myocarditis is diagnosed by a thorough history including new medications, exposures, travel, prior allergy history, physical exam, lab work including a complete blood count differential, inflammatory markers, cardiac biomarkers, and cardiac diagnostics which should include a 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram as well as potentially cardiac MRI and/or endomyocardial biopsy.

What are the causes of eosinophilic myocarditis?

The causes of eosinophilic myocarditis include medication-induced, hypersensitivity reactions, infections, malignancy, and immune-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and hypereosinophilic syndromes. The hypersensitivity subtype has been reported to be the most common cause. Potential offending medications can include antibiotics, sulfonamides, anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatory medications, and diuretics.

What is the treatment for eosinophilic myocarditis?

Treatment for eosinophilic myocarditis is multi-faceted, including focusing on the etiology and withdrawal of any potential offending agents, management of the acute clinical presentation, and treatment of any concomitant heart failure or cardiomyopathy. Immunosuppressive therapy has been controversial; however, many case reports have successfully used methylprednisolone, and some patients with cardiogenic shock from eosinophilic myocarditis have received therapy with azathioprine.


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