The following question refers to Section 4.9 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by UCSD fellow Dr. Patrick Azcarate, and then by expert faculty Dr. Melissa Tracy.
Dr. Tracy is a preventive cardiologist, former Director of the Echocardiography Lab, Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation, and solid organ transplant cardiologist at Rush University.
The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.
In patients with a low risk of cardiovascular disease, which of the following is true?
Aspirin does not affect the risk of ischemic stroke
Aspirin increases the risk of fatal bleeding.
Aspirin reduces the risk of non-fatal MI.
Aspirin reduces cardiovascular mortality
In 2019, an updated meta-analysis of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events found that patients with a low risk of CVD taking aspirin did not have a reduction in all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. There was a lower risk of non-fatal MI (RR 0.82) and ischemic stroke (RR 0.87). However, aspirin was also associated with a higher risk of major bleeding (RR 1.50), intracranial bleeding (RR 1.32), and major GI bleeding (RR 1.52). There was no difference in the risk of fatal bleeding (RR 1.09).
Accordingly, the ESC does not recommend antiplatelet therapy in individuals with low/moderate CV risk due to the increased risk of major bleeding (Class III, LOE A).
Although aspirin should not be given routinely to patients without established ASCVD, we cannot exclude that in some patients at high or very high CVD risk, the benefits may outweigh the risks.
In patients with low/moderate risk of CVD, aspirin for primary prevention is not recommended due to the higher risk of bleeding. For those at higher risk of CVD, low-dose aspirin may be considered for prevention in the absence of contraindications.
Section 4.9.1, Page 3291