Welcome to the Cardionerds Cardiovascular Prevention Page!
Below you will find podcast episodes and infographics related to cardiovascular prevention. Click podcast episodes to expand for episode details and access to show notes which include show notes, references, and more about our guests.
The CardioNerds Prevention collection includes the CardioNerds Lipid Series which was produced by series co-chairs Dr. Rick Ferraro, cardiology fellow at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Dr. Tommy Das, cardiology fellow at The Cleveland Clinic in collaboration with the American Society For Preventive Cardiology (ASPC).
CardioNerds Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), Rick Ferraro (cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital), and Dr. Xiaoming Jia (Cardiology Fellow at Baylor College Medicine) take a closer look at the mechanism of icosapent ethyl in triglyceride lowering and ASCVD risk reduction with Dr. Michael Shapiro, the Fred M. Parrish professor of cardiology at Wake Forest University and Director of the Center for Preventative Cardiology at Wake Forest Baptist Health. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig.
CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem (CardioNerds Academy Chief of House Taussig and medicine resident at Lahey Hospital), and Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of CardioNerds Internship and medicine resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital) discuss family history of premature ASCVD with Dr. Ann Marie Navar, Preventive Cardiologist and Associate Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Population and Data Sciences at UT Southwestern Medical Center. They discuss the art of soliciting a nuanced family history, refining cardiovascular risk using risk models and novel markers, counseling patients with elevated risk, and more. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem and reviewed by Dr. Gurleen Kaur. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Intern, student Dr. Adriana Mares.
For related teaching, check out this Tweetorial about CAC by Dr. Gurleen Kaur, the Family History of Premature ASCVD Infographic by Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem, and the CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series.
CardioNerds Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), Rick Ferraro (cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital), and Dr. Aliza Hussain (cardiology fellow at Baylor College Medicine) take a deep dive on the REDUCE-IT trial with Dr. Peter Toth, director of preventive cardiology at the CGH medical center in Sterling, Illinois, clinical professor in family and community medicine at the University of Illinois School of Medicine, and past president of the National Lipid Association and the American Board of Clinical Lipidology. Special introduction to CardioNerds Clinical Trialist Dr. Jeff Wang (Emory University). Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Shivani Reddy.
CardioNerds Dr. Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and Cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), Dr. Rick Ferraro (Director of CardioNerds Journal Club and Cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital), Dr. Patrick Zakka (CardioNerds Academy Chief fellow of House Jones and Cardiology fellow at UCLA) discuss omega-3 fatty acids & the battle of the oils with Dr. Pam Taub, Director of Step Family Foundation Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Wellness Center and Professor of Medicine at UC San Diego. Learn all about the different types of omega-3 fatty acids and the differences between prescription omega-3 fatty acids and dietary supplement fish oils. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Shivani Reddy.
CardioNerds Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), Rick Ferraro (Director of CardioNerds Journal Club and cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital), and CardioNerds Healy Honor Roll Ambassador Dr. Justice Oranefo (UConn cardiology fellow) discuss omega-3 fatty acids acid with Dr. Ty Gluckman, preventive cardiologist and medical director of the Center for Cardiovascular Analytics, Research, and Data Science (CARDS) at the Providence St. Joseph Heart Institute in Portland, Oregon. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Christian Faaborg-Andersen.
In the recent years, purified omega 3 fatty acids and its esters have emerged as a potential new tool in our arsenal for management of hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. In this episode we review the sources and basic structure of these compounds, as well as their metabolic effects as it pertains to cardiovascular disease. Using hypothetical patient cases, we also discuss scenarios in which these therapies can be useful.
CardioNerds Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic) and Rick Ferraro (Director of CardioNerds Journal Club and cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital) join Dr. Erin Michos (Associate Professor of Cardiology at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Editor-In-Chief of the American Journal of Preventative Cardiology) for a discussion about the effect of DHA and EPA on triglycerides and why DHA/EPA combinations may have exhibited limited benefits in trials. This episode is part of the CardioNerds Lipids Series which is a comprehensive series lead by co-chairs Dr. Rick Ferraro and Dr. Tommy Das and is developed in collaboration with the American Society For Preventive Cardiology (ASPC).
CardioNerds Dan Ambinder, Dr. Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), and episode lead, Dr. Teodora Donisan (CardioNerds Academy fellow and incoming Chief fellow and Beaumont Health Internal Medicine resident) join Dr. Matthew Budoff (professor of medicine at David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and the Endowed Chair of Preventive Cardiology at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center) for a discussion about triglycerides from pathophysiology to clinical outcomes. This episode is part of the CardioNerds Lipids Series which is a comprehensive series lead by co-chairs Dr. Rick Ferraro and Dr. Tommy Das and is developed in collaboration with the American Society For Preventive Cardiology (ASPC).
CardioNerds Dr. Rick Ferraro, Director of the #CardsJC Journal Club and cardiology fellow at Johns Hopkins, and Dr. Tommy Das, Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic, learn all about the clinical application of the ASCVD primary and secondary prevention guidelines in terms of lifestyle modifications and lipid lowering strategies from Dr. Allison Bailey, Editor-in-Chief of the ACCEL Audio Journal and Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiologist at Centennial Heart. Dr. Baily was a co-author on the 2018 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol.
In this episode we will learn about the current guidelines for primary prevention of ASCVD, the evidence for specific dietary changes in improving cardiovascular outcomes, the current guidelines for secondary prevention of ASCVD, how successful are clinicians and patients in meeting LDL-C recommendations, and what the recent SAMSON trial teaches us about statin intolerance.
CardioNerds Dr. Rick Ferraro, Director of the #CardsJC Journal Club and cardiology fellow at Johns Hopkins and Dr. Tommy Das, Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic join Academy fellow and episode lead Dr. Julie Power, chief fellow at the University of Minnesota to learn all about the link between LDL-C and cardiovascular events and disparities in care from Dr. Keith Ferdinand, Professor of Medicine and Chair in Preventative Cardiology at Tulane University School of Medicine.
As we’ve learned in prior episodes, LDL-C plays a key role in lipid pathophysiology. But how does it lead to cardiovascular events? LDL-C directly leads to plaque expansion and deposition in the arterial intima. Increasing levels of LDL-C are directly related to worsening plaque burden, a principle exhibited powerfully by the dose-dependent nature of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with underlying mutations leading to LDL-C elevation, such as familial hypercholesterolemia.
Importantly, the treatment of atherosclerosis and implementation of lipid-lowering therapies are not uniform, with significant disparities throughout the community. The message is clear: Reducing LDL-C is of paramount significance in the prevention and treatment of coronary atherosclerosis and ensuring equitable access to care is critical to addressing the societal burden of cardiovascular disease and improving the health of our communities.
There is no CME associated with this episode. To get free CME from other CardioNerds episodes, please visit VCU Health here.
Relevant disclosure: Dr. Ferdinand reported severing as a consultant for Medtronic, Amgen, and Novartis.
CardioNerds Academy Chief Fellows Dr. Rick Ferraro (FIT, Johns Hopkins) and Dr. Tommy Das (FIT, Cleveland Clinic) join Academy fellow Dr. Jessie Holtzman (soon, chief resident at UCSF internal medicine residency) to learn all about LDL physiology and function from Dr. Peter Toth!
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been well established as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with an ever growing armamentarium of medications to lower LDL-C plasma levels. Yet, LDL-C also plays a number of key physiologic roles across mammalian species, such as cell membrane formation, bile acid synthesis, and steroid hormone production. In this episode, we discuss the definitions of high, normal, low, and ultra-low LDL-C, what functional assays are used to measure LDL-C, and what is considered the safe lower-limit of LDL-C, if there is one at all. Drawing upon experience from rare genetic conditions including abetalipoproteinemia and loss-of-function variants of the PCSK9 gene, we glean pearls that clarify the risks and benefits of low LDL-C.
CardioNerds (Carine Hamo, Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder) discuss personalized risk assessment for cardiovascular prevention with Dr. Amit Khera, the immediate past president for the American Society for Preventive Cardiology and Director of the Preventive Cardiology and Professor of Medicine at the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School in Dallas, Texas. They dive into an illuminating discussion about traditional and next generation personalization of risk assessment which covers the need for personalization, traditional risk stratification, applying risk enhancing factors for decision making, biomarkers, familial hypercholesterolemia, and the use of -Omics. This episode is the 13th and final part of our in-depth prevention series produced in collaboration with the American Society for Preventive Cardiology!
Stay tuned for a bonus segment at the end of the episodeas we talk to Dr. Ankur Kalra, interventionist at the Cleveland Clinic, Podcast host of Parallax by Ankur Kalra, and founder of the non-profit startup, makeadent.org for a discussion about the CHAI (Cardiovascular Health in Asian Indians) Collaborative, an initiative that aims to identify genetic markers of heightened atherosclerosis in South Asians.
CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder) are joined by Cleveland Clinic cardiology fellow Dr. Gregory Ogunnowo to discuss hypertension with Dr. Luke Laffin, cardiology faculty in the division of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation and Medical Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation at the Cleveland Clinic. Part 2 of this discussion covers the evaluation for secondary causes of HTN, approach to resistant HTN, interventional anti-hypertensive procedures, and a note on cardiac rehabilitation. Part 1 covered the definition of hypertension, correct measurement of blood pressure, nonpharmacologic HTN management, initial choice of BP agents, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder) are joined by Cleveland Clinic cardiology fellow Dr. Gregory Ogunnowo to discuss hypertension with Dr. Luke Laffin, cardiology faculty in the division of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation and Medical Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation at the Cleveland Clinic. Part 1 of this discussion covers the definition of hypertension, correct measurement of blood pressure, nonpharmacologic HTN management, initial choice of BP agents, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Be sure to follow-up with Part 2 to learn about evaluation for secondary causes of HTN, approach to resistant HTN, interventional anti-hypertensive procedures, and a note on cardiac rehabilitation.
Click here for references, show notes, and more!
CardioNerds (Carine Hamo, Amit Goyal, and Daniel Ambinder) discuss the obesity epidemic and how it relates to the cardiovascular system with Dr. Chiadi Ndumele, cardiologist and epidemiologist at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and chairs the obesity subcommittee of the American Heart Association (AHA). They cover obesity definitions, epidemiology, strengths and limitations of different biometrics, including BMI, impact on myocardial structure and function, and current pharmacologic & surgical options for weight loss. They also discuss the practical approach to addressing obesity with patients. This episode was produced by Dr. Carine Hamo. Show notes & references by Dr. Daniel Ambinder.
Click here for references, show notes, and more!
CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder) discuss diabetes mellitus with Dr. Dennis Bruemmer. This is a must-listen for anyone engaged in the case of the cardiovascular patient. Given the alarming obesity epidemic, we anticipate a rising worldwide tide of diabetes mellitus and ensuing cardiovascular disease. Here we discuss the epidemiology and approach to diabetes management, with emphasis on what CardioNerds need to know. Dr. Bruemmer is board-certified in both cardiology and endocrinology, and is the director of the Center for Cardiometabolic Health in the section of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation at the Cleveland Clinic.
Click here for references, show notes, and more!
The CardioNerds (Carine Hamo and Daniel Ambinder) discuss aspirin as primary prevention, Vitamin D, Calcium, and omega 3 fatty acids supplementation with Dr. Erin Michos, director of women’s cardiovascular health and the associate director of preventive cardiology with Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. We are also joined by Dr. Michos’ mentees, Dr. Rick Ferraro, Dr. Andi Shahu, and student doctor Sunyoung (Sarah) Jang for a discussion about mentorship and career development. This episode was produced by Dr. Rick Ferraro and Dr. Carine Hamo. Show notes & references by Dr. Amit Goyal.
Click here for references, show notes and more!
CardioNerds (Amit Goyal & Carine Hamo) discuss the past, present, and future of Women’s Heart Health & Women in Cardiology with Dr. Nanette Wenger, Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology at the Emory University School of Medicine. Dr. Wenger is a true leader in the field of women’s heart health and a strong proponent for women in cardiology and medicine. Her passion, dedication, and advocacy have inspired countless trainees to carry this torch and continue to build on her truly impactful work. Special introduction by Dr. Martha Gulati and birthday wishes to Dr. Wenger by the entire CardioNerds Team! Special thanks to Dr. Kimberly Manning for her invaluable mentorship.
The CardioNerds discuss Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring with Dr. Michael Blaha, Director of Clinical Research for the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Joining the discussion is Dr. Gabriel Shaya, cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and prevention researcher. Carine, Heather and Dan take a deep dive into the crunchy and calcified world of coronary artery disease discussing the evidence and utility of coronary artery calcium scoring as a powerful tool for individualized risk stratification of cardiovascular disease prevention.
The CardioNerds discuss Lipid Management with Dr. Ann Marie Navar and Dr. Nishant Shah from Duke Medical Center, Division of Cardiology. Amit, Carine and Dan take a deep dive into the greasy world of lipids and cholesterol, covering lipid metabolism, therapeutic targets, approach across the entire spectrum of predicted risk, and key common management scenarios (statin intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated LP(a)), and more.
The CardioNerds discuss Women’s Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Leslie Cho, Interventional Cardiologist and Director of the Cleveland Clinic’s Women’s Cardiovascular Center. She is also Section Head of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation in the Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at Cleveland Clinic. Amit, Dan and Carine take a deep dive into women’s cardiovascular prevention and discuss the epidemiology, unique risk factors, different manifestations of CVD and treatment strategies to lower cardiovascular risk in women. Tune in as we discuss cases from the CardioNerds Women’s Clinic to learn more!
The CardioNerds discuss The ‘ABC’s of Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Roger Blumenthal, Director of the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and co-chairperson of the 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Guideline on prevention of cardiovascular disease. Joining the discussion is Dr. David Feldman, Osler housestaff and first author of a beautiful State-of-the-Art review in the American Journal of Preventive Cardiology discussing a comprehensive ABCs of prevention.
CardioNerds Amit Goyal and returning guest Dr. Zach Il’Giovine interview our star patient of this series: Kanak Amin to explore the patient perspective on cardiovascular prevention. Mr. Amin tells us about his perspectives on being a heart patient and offers important advice for both patients and providers on the. He gives us many pearls, but especially highlights the importance of diabetes education, cardiac rehabilitation, engaging loved ones, and getting to know the patient on a deeper level.
This is the first episode in an important series on cardiovascular prevention. It’s no secret that cardiovascular disease is the #1 killer worldwide; the total impact on humanity is just staggering. A focus on preventing cardiovascular disease is an impetus for every cardionerd. In this episode Dan, Amit, Carine, and Heather discuss an illustrative case discussion and review the Cardionerds 2+4 paradigm of cardiovascular prevention: 2 fundamental principles of management + 4 steps in risk stratification.
TWO principles of management
Emphasize healthy lifestyle for everyone regardless of risk
Escalate Preventive Measures with ↑ Risk
FOUR steps of risk stratification
Qualitative risk approximation – identify major risk factors and start counseling and education.
Quantitative risk estimation – use a validated model to quantify a patient’s future risk of CVD.
Identify Risk Enhancing Factors – personalize risk if patient is in the gray zones after step 2
Measure coronary artery calcium score – selectively if risk remains uncertain
CardioNerds Prevention Episode Collection
Cardiovascular Prevention Infographic
Lipid Series Co-Chairs!
Dr. Rick Ferraro is midwest raised, spent two years as a Teach For America Corps member teaching science in Milwaukee before heading to medical school at Weill Cornell Medicine in NYC. Current senior resident at the Osler Medical Residency program and will begin cardiology fellowship at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 2021. Completed intern year under the incredible leadership of Dr. Amit Goyal. Interested in cardiovascular prevention and imaging
Dr. Tommy Das is an internal medicine resident in the Osler Program at Johns Hopkins and rising cardiology fellow at The Cleveland Clinic. He is a native of Houston, TX, and completed medical school at UT Southwestern School of Medicine. He is part of the inaugural Medical Education Pathway for IM Residents at Johns Hopkins, and is passionate about the interplay between MedEd and Cardiology. His interests range from teaching hands-on bedside skills to interventional cardiology research to the pursuit of perfect pecan pie.